Disinfectant and Sanitiser Efficacy on Monkeypox Virus
May 27, 2022
All Callington Group disinfectant and sanitiser products have excellent efficacy against the Monkeypox virus. This has been proven by testing against related approved surrogate enveloped viruses such as murine hepatitis virus, vaccinia virus and influenza virus.
Background on Monkeypox Virus:
Human monkeypox (MPX) is a zoonotic viral disease caused by the Monkeypox virus (MPXV). The clinical presentation is similar to smallpox. Human monkeypox causes outbreaks in the tropical rainforest regions of Central and West Africa and is not a notifiable disease at the EU/EEA level. Human monkeypox was recognised as a human disease in 1970.
Monkeypox virus is an enveloped double‐stranded DNA virus with a genome size of around 190 kb. It belongs to the Orthopoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae family. The Orthopoxvirus genus also includes Vaccinia virus, Cowpox virus, Variola virus and several other, animal-related, poxviruses.
The identification in May 2022 of clusters of monkeypox cases in several non-endemic countries with no direct travel links to an endemic area is atypical. Further investigations are underway to determine the likely source of infection and limit further onward spread. As the source of this outbreak is being investigated, it is important to look at all possible modes of transmission in order to safeguard public health.
Transmission of Monkeypox Virus
MPXV is transmitted to humans through contact with an infected animal or human, or with material contaminated with the virus. The virus enters the body through broken skin, the respiratory tract or the mucous membranes. The incubation period is typically 6 to 16 days, but can range from 5 to 21 days.
The principal mode of transmission is thought to be direct contact with MPX lesions or with the patient’s belongings that have been in contact with the lesions. Therefore, caregivers and relatives should avoid touching skin lesions with bare hands, wear disposable gloves, and observe strict hand hygiene. It is also reported that human-to-human transmission can result from close contact with respiratory secretions, skin lesions of an infected person or recently contaminated objects2. The importance of hand hygiene by using soap and water or alcohol-based sanitizer should be emphasized.
- Hand hygiene (i.e., hand washing with soap and water or use of an alcohol-based hand rub) should be performed by infected persons and household contacts after touching lesion material, clothing, linens, or environmental surfaces that may have had contact with lesion material.
- Contaminated surfaces should be cleaned and disinfected. Standard household cleaning/disinfectants may be used in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
- Laundry (e.g., bedding, towels, clothing) may be washed in a standard washing machine with warm water and detergent; bleach may be added but is not necessary. Care should be used when handling soiled laundry to avoid direct contact with contaminated material. Soiled laundry should not be shaken or otherwise handled in a manner that may disperse infectious particles.
- Dishes and other eating utensils should not be shared. It is not necessary for the infected person to use separate utensils if properly washed. Soiled dishes and eating utensils should be washed in a dishwasher or by hand with warm water and soap.
Scope and Regulatory Framework
This bulletin applies to all Callington Group disinfectants and sanitisers. No advice or guidance can be inferred or given for non-Callington approved disinfectants and sanitisers.
The ability of a disinfectant to kill COVID-19 virus is related to the chemical make-up of both the virus and the disinfectant. Disinfectants work by chemically inactivating viruses. The lipid envelope that surrounds the monkeypox virus and all other enveloped viruses is easily attacked by the disinfectant and this occurs regardless of the morphology (structure) of the proteins on the surface of the viruses. The general mode of action of how a disinfectant attacks an enveloped virus is shown here:
a) Disinfectant attaches the virus via strong adsorption to the lipid envelope surface.
b) Disorganization and severe damage of lipid envelope occurs due to the interaction between the disinfectant and viral particles.
c) This results in the leakage of the viral genome and consequent deactivation of the virus.
You can continue to recommend with full confidence all Callington Group disinfectants and hand sanitisers for use against transmission of Monkeypox virus.